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复合材料知多少?

更新日期: 2021-12-8  

复合材料的原材料包括树脂、纤维和芯材等有多种选择,各种材料又有其独特的强度、刚度、韧性和热稳定性等性能,成本和产量也不尽相同。然而,复合材料作为一个整体,其最终性能不仅与树脂基体和纤维(以及夹芯材结构中的芯材)有关,而且与结构中材料的设计方法和制造工艺有密切联系。

composites are made from various raw materials including resins, fibers, core materials, etc. as they have different strength, stiffness, toughness, thermal stability and other performance, their costs and outputs are also different. however, the final performance of the composite as a whole is not only related to the resin matrix and fiber (and the core material in the sandwich structure), but also closely related to the structural design and manufacturing process. 


十种常见复材成型工艺

10 common composite forming processes


一、喷涂成型/

spray molding

材料选择 

树脂:主要为聚酯 

纤维:粗玻璃纤维纱 

芯材:需要单独与层合板结合 

material options 

resin: polyester is mainly used 

fiber: thick glass fiber yarn 

core: needs to be combined with laminate separately


喷涂成型:把短切纤维增强材料与树脂体系同时喷涂在模具内,然后在常压下固化成热固性复合材料制品的一种成型工艺。

spray molding: chopped-fiber reinforced materials and resin systems are sprayed into the mold at the same time, and then cured into thermosetting composites under normal pressure.


典型应用:简易围栏,低载荷结构板,如敞篷车车身、卡车整流罩、浴缸和小型船艇

typical application: simple fences, low-load structural panels, such as convertible bodies, truck fairings, bathtubs and small boats


二、手糊成型/

hand paste molding


材料选择

树脂:无要求,环氧、聚酯、聚乙烯基酯、酚醛树脂均可

纤维:无要求,但是基重较大的芳纶纤维难以手糊浸润

芯材:无要求

material options

resin: no special requirement, epoxy, polyester, polyvinyl ester, phenolic resin are all desirable

fiber: no special requirement, but hand paste molding and infiltration is difficult to achieve for aramid fiber with a larger basis weight

core: no special requirement


手糊成型:手动将树脂浸润纤维,纤维可以为机织、编织、缝合或粘结等增强方式,手糊成型通常用滚轮或刷子完成,然后用胶滚挤压树脂使之渗入纤维。层合板置于常压下固化。

hand paste molding: the resin is manually infiltrated into the fiber. the fiber can be reinforced by mechanical weaving, manual weaving, stitching or bonding, etc. the hand paste molding process is usually completed with a roller or brush, and then the resin is squeezed into the fiber with a rubber roller. the laminate is cured under normal pressure.


典型应用:标准风电叶片,批量制作的船艇,建筑模型

typical application: standard wind turbine blades, mass-produced boats, architectural models


三、真空袋工艺/

vacuum bag molding


材料选择

树脂:主要为环氧和酚醛树脂,聚酯和聚乙烯基酯不适用,因为它们含有苯乙烯,挥发进入真空泵

纤维:无要求,即使基重较大的纤维也可以在压力下被浸润

芯材:无要求

material options

resin: epoxy and phenolic resins are mainly used, polyester and polyvinyl ester are not applicable, because they contain styrene which volatilizes into the vacuum pump

fiber: no special requirement, even fibers with a larger basis weight can be infiltrated under pressure

core: no special requirement


真空袋工艺:真空袋工艺是上述手糊工艺的延伸,即在模具上封一层塑料膜将手糊好的层合板抽真空,给层合板施加一个大气压的压力,达到排气紧实的效果,以提高复合材料的品质。

vacuum bag molding: it is an extension of the above-mentioned hand paste molding process, that is, a layer of plastic film is sealed on the mold to vacuumize the hand-pasted laminate, and an atmospheric pressure is applied to the laminate to achieve the effect of exhausting gas and then improve the quality of the composite material.


典型应用:大尺寸的游艇,赛车零部件,船舶制造过程中芯材的粘结

typical application: bonding of core materials in large-size yachts, racing parts and shipbuilding processes 


四、缠绕成型/

filament winding


材料选择

树脂:无要求,如环氧、聚酯、聚乙烯基酯和酚醛树脂等

纤维:无要求,直接使用线轴架的纤维束,不需要机织或缝织成纤维布

芯材:无要求,但蒙皮通常为单层复合材料

material options

resin: no special requirement, such as epoxy, polyester, polyvinyl ester and phenolic resin, etc.

fiber: no special requirement, directly use the fiber bundle of the spool holder, no need to weave or stitch into fiber cloth

core: no special requirement, but the skin is usually a single-layer composite material


缠绕成型:缠绕工艺基本用于制造中空、圆形或椭圆形结构件,如管道和槽。纤维束经过树脂浸润后沿各种方向缠绕在芯轴上,工艺过程由缠绕机和芯轴转速控制。

filament winding: the winding process is basically used to manufacture hollow, round or oval structural parts, such as pipes and grooves. the fiber bundle is wound on the mandrel in various directions after being infiltrated by the resin, and the process is controlled by the winding machine and the speed of the mandrel. 


典型应用:化学品储藏罐和输送管,气缸,救火员呼吸罐

typical application: chemical storage tanks and pipelines, gas cylinders, firefighter breathing tanks


五、拉挤成型/

pultrusion molding


材料选择

树脂:通常为环氧、聚酯、聚乙烯基酯和酚醛树脂等

纤维:无要求

芯材:未普遍使用

material options

resin: usually epoxy, polyester, polyvinylester and phenolic resin, etc.

fiber: no special requirement

core: not commonly used


拉挤成型:从线轴架抽出的纤维束浸胶后穿过加热盘,在加热盘完成树脂对纤维的浸润,并且控制树脂含量,最终将材料固化成要求的形状;这种形状固定的固化产品被机械切割为不同长度。纤维也可以沿0度以外的方向进入热盘。挤拉成型是一个连续的生产过程,制品截面通常有固定形状,允许有微小变化。将通过热盘的预浸润材料固定并铺入模具立即固化,虽然这样的流程连续性较差,但可以实现截面形状的改变。

pultrusion molding: the fiber bundle drawn from the spool frame is dipped and passed through the heating plate, where the resin is infiltrated into the fiber and the resin content is controlled. finally the material is cured into the required shape. the cured product with a fixed shape is mechanically cut into different lengths. fiber can also pass through the heating plate in directions other than 0 degrees. pultrusion is a continuous manufacturing process. the cross-section of the product usually has a fixed shape, allowing small changes. the pre-dipped material passing through the heating plate is fixed and laid into the mold to be cured immediately. although this process has poor continuity, it can change thecross-sectional shape. 


典型应用:房屋结构的梁和桁架,桥梁,梯子和围栏

typical application: beams and trusses of house structures, bridges, ladders and fences 


六、树脂传递模塑工艺/

resin transfer molding


材料选择

树脂:通常为环氧、聚酯、聚乙烯酯和酚醛树脂,双马来酰亚胺树脂可以在高温下使用

纤维:无要求。缝合纤维更适合此工艺,因为纤维束间隙利于树脂传送;有专门研发的纤维可以促进树脂流动

芯材:蜂窝泡沫不适用,因为蜂窝单元将被树脂充满,压力也会导致泡沫塌陷

material options

resin: epoxy, polyester, polyvinyl ester and phenolic resin usually used, bismaleimide resin can be used at high temperature

fiber: no special requirement, stitched fibers are more suitable for this process, because the fiber bundle gap can help transfer the resin, specially developed fibers can promote resin flow

core: honeycomb foam is not suitable, because the cells of the honeycomb structure will be filled with resin, and pressure will also cause foam collapse 


树脂传递模塑工艺:将干纤维铺覆在下模内,可以预先施加压力使纤维尽量与模具形状贴合,并予以粘合绑定;然后,把上模固定在下模上形成型腔,再将树脂注入型腔。通常采用真空辅助树脂的注入和对纤维的浸润,即真空辅助树脂注入工艺(vari)。一旦纤维浸润完成,即关闭树脂导入阀,并将复合材料进行固化。树脂注入和固化既可以在室温下进行,也可以在加热条件下完成。

resin transfer molding: lay dry fibers in the lower mold and apply pressure in advance to make fibers fit the mold shape as much as possible and bond them together. next, fix the upper mold on the lower mold to form a cavity, and then inject the resin into the cavity. generally, vacuum-assisted resin injection and fiber infiltration are used, that is, the vacuum-assisted resin injection process (vari). once the fiber infiltration is completed, the resin introduction valve is closed in order to cure the composite material. resin injection and curing can be done at room temperature or under heating condition.


典型应用:小型而复杂的航天飞机和汽车零部件,火车座椅

typical application: small and complex space shuttles and auto parts, train seats 


七、其他灌注工艺/

other infusion processes-scrimp, rift, vartm


材料选择

树脂:通常为环氧、聚酯、聚乙烯酯树脂

纤维:任何常见纤维。缝合纤维更适合此工艺,因为纤维束间隙加速树脂传送

芯材:蜂窝泡沫不适用

material options

resin: epoxy, polyester, polyvinyl esterresin mainly used

fiber: any common fiber can be used. stitched fibers are more suitable for this process, because the fiber bundle gap accelerates the resin transfer

core: honeycomb foam is not applicable 


其他灌注工艺:将干纤维以类似于rtm工艺中的方式铺覆,然后铺上剥离布和导流网。铺层完成后,用真空袋完全密封,在真空度达到一定要求时,将树脂导入整个铺层结构。树脂在层合板中的分布依靠导流网引导树脂流动来实现,最后自上而下将干纤维完全浸润。

other infusion processes: 

fabrics are laid up as a dry stack of materials as in rtm. the fiber stack is then converted with peel ply and a knitted type of non-structural fabric. the whole dry stack is then vacuum bagged, and once bag leaks have been eliminated, resin is allowed to flow into the laminate. the resin distribution over the whole laminate is aided by resin flowing easily through the non-structural fabric, and wetting the fabric out from above. 


典型应用:试制小型船艇,火车和卡车的车身板,风电叶片

typical application: trial production of body panels for small boats, trains andtrucks, wind turbine blades


八、预浸料-高压釜工艺/

autoclave prepreg processing


材料选择

树脂:通常为环氧、聚酯、酚醛树脂,耐高温树脂如聚酰亚胺、氰酸酯和双马来酰亚胺也可使用

纤维:无要求。纤维束或纤维布均可

芯材:无要求,但泡沫需耐高温高压

material options

resin: epoxy, polyester, phenolic resins are usually used, high temperature resistant resins such as polyimide, cyanate ester and bismaleimide can also be used

fiber: no special requirement, fiber bundle or fiber cloth is suitable

core: no special requirement, but the foam needs to resist against high temperature and high pressure


预浸料-高压釜工艺:纤维或纤维布由材料制造商使用含有催化剂的树脂预先浸润,制造方法为高温高压法或溶剂溶解法。催化剂为室温潜伏型,使材料在室温下有几周或几个月的有效期;冷藏条件可以延长其储存期限。预浸料可以手工或机器铺入模具表面,然后覆盖真空袋,加热至120-180°c。加热后树脂可以再次流动,并最终固化。可以用高压釜对材料施加额外的压力,通常可以达到5个大气压。

autoclave prepreg processing: the fiber or fiber cloth is pre-impregnated by the material manufacturer with a resin containing a catalyst, and the manufacturing process is conducted with the use of high temperature and high pressure method or solvent dissolution method. the catalyst is latent at room temperature, so that the material has a shelf life of several weeks or months at room temperature. cold storage conditions can extend its shelf life. the prepreg can be placed on the mold surface by hand or machine, then covered with a vacuum bag and heated to 120-180°c. after heating, the resin can flow again and finally solidify. an autoclave can be used to apply additional pressure to the material, usually up to 5 atmospheres.


典型应用:航天飞机结构件(如机翼和尾部),f1赛车

typical application: space shuttles’ structural parts (such as wings and tails), f1 racing cars


九、预浸料-非高压釜工艺/

out-of-autoclave prepreg processing


材料选择

树脂:通常仅环氧树脂

纤维:无要求,与传统预浸料一样

芯材:无要求,但使用标准pvc泡沫需特别注意

material options

resin: usually only epoxy resin is used

fiber: no special requirement, the same as traditional prepreg

core: no special requirement, but the use of standard pvc foam requires special attention


预浸料-非高压釜工艺:低温固化预浸料制造工艺与高压釜预浸料完全相同,不同的是树脂的化学特性允许其在60-120°c实现固化。对于低温60°c固化,材料的工作时间仅一周;对于高温催化剂(>80°c),工作时间可达到几个月。树脂体系的流动性允许仅使用真空袋固化,避免使用高压釜。

out-of-autoclave prepreg processing: low-temperature cure prepreg fabrication process is exactly the same as that of autoclave prepreg, except that the chemical properties of the resin allow it to be cured at 60-120°c. for curing at a low temperature of 60°c, the working time of the material is only one week. for a high-temperature catalyst (>80°c), the working time can reach several months. the fluidity of the resin system allows only the use of vacuum bags to cure, avoiding the use of autoclaves.


典型应用:高性能风电叶片,大型赛艇和游艇,救援飞机,火车部件

typical application: high-performance wind turbine blades, large racing boats and yachts, rescue aircraft and train parts 


十、半预浸料sprint/梁用预浸料sparpreg非高压釜工艺/

semi-preg sprint/sparpreg out-of-autoclave processing


材料选择

树脂:多为环氧树脂,其他树脂也可用

纤维:无要求

芯材:大部分,但使用标准pvc泡沫需特别注意高温

material options

resin: epoxy resin is mostly used, other resins can also be used

fiber: no special requirement

core: most materials are suitable, but the use of standard pvc foam requires special attention at high temperature


sprint/sparpreg非高压釜工艺:较厚结构(>3mm)中使用预浸料很难在固化过程中将层间或重叠铺层部分的气泡排出,为了克服这一困难,预抽真空被引入了铺层工艺,却显著增加了工艺时间。半预浸料sprint由两层干纤维夹一层树脂膜的夹芯结构组成,材料铺入模具后,真空泵即可将其中的空气在树脂升温变软并浸润纤维前完全抽干,然后再进行固化。梁用预浸料sparpreg是一种改进的预浸料,在真空条件下固化时,可以很容易地将气泡从粘合的两层材料间排除。

sprint/sparpreg out-of-autoclave processing: when we use the prepreg in thicker structures (>3mm), it is difficult to discharge air bubbles between layers or overlapping layers during the curing process. in order to overcome this difficulty, pre-vacuum is introduced into the layering process, but it significantly increases process time. the semi-preg sprint has a sandwich structure which is composed of two-layered dry fibers and one-layer resin film. after the material is placed into the mold, the vacuum pump can completely drain the air before the resin heats up to soften and dip the fibers, and then the curing process can be conducted. the sparpreg is an improved prepreg which can easily remove air bubbles from the bonded two layers of materials when cured under vacuum condition.


典型应用:高性能风电叶片,大型赛艇和游艇,救援飞机

typical application: high-performance wind turbine blades, large racing boats and yachts, rescue aircrafts


南通新纳希新材料有限公司可生产多种复合材料用环氧树脂,欢迎广大新老客户来电垂询,我们将竭诚为您服务!
nantong synasia new material co., ltd. can produce a variety of epoxy resins for composite materials. welcome all customers to call us and we will serve you wholeheartedly! 



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